InVitro Fertilization ( IVF)
In simple terms, IVF involves collecting eggs from the ovary, putting them together with sperm in a dish and, if those sperms fertilize an egg, putting the embryo or embryos that result into the womb.
The procedure to collect the eggs takes about half an hour and can be done under a general anesthetic, although many clinics prefer to use sedation and painkillers.
Hostile Vaginal Environment
The seminal plasma provides a nutritive and protective medium for the spermatozoa during their journey through the female reproductive tract. The normal environment of the vagina is a hostile one for sperm cells, as it is very acidic (from the native microflora producing lactic acid), viscous, and patrolled by immune cells. The components in the seminal plasma attempt to compensate for this hostile environment. These alkaline bases counteract the acidic environment of the vaginal canal (which is harmful to sperm), and protect DNA inside the sperm from acidic denaturation.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
The condition, polycystic ovarian syndrome, known as PCOS, is the most common cause of ovulation disorders in women of reproductive age and is a familial condition. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a primary ovarian condition and is characterized by the presence of many minute cysts in the ovaries and excess production of androgens.